Research on Qiang
Fieldwork on Qiang and initial analyses were first carried out by Wen Yu in the late 1930's (Wen 1940, 1941, 1943a, 1943b, 1943c, 1945). Wen also did some initial comparisons and historical work on the language (1943b, 1947), and published two vocabularies of Qiang (1950, 1951). Chang Kun (1967) used Wen's data for a comparative study of the southern Qiang dialects, and attempted to reconstruct the proto-language. In the late 1950's the Academia Sinica (now the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences) organized teams of linguists to go to the different areas where ethnic minority peoples lived and carry out fieldwork (see Liu 1998:1-3 for details).
Fieldwork was carried out in 32 different Qiang-speaking sites, with varying amounts of data being collected in different sites. Two members of the team that worked on Qiang were Liu Guangkun and Sun Hongkai (now retired). An early report drafted by them was published with 'Institute of Nationalities, Academia Sinica' as the author in the journal Zhongguo Yuwen in 1962, but work on the data was disrupted because of the Cultural Revolution. Since the late 1970's Liu and Sun have tried to work up and publish more of the data collected in the 1950's (Sun 1981a, 1981b, 1982, 1983, 1985, 1988; Liu 1981, 1984, 1987, 1997, 1998a, 1998b, 1999).
Huang Bufan, another member of the original team (now retired from the Central University of Nationalities), also published important articles on Qiang (Huang 1987, 1991, 1994; Huang, Yu & Huang 1992). Of the works published by Sun, Liu, and Huang, two are brief descriptions of Qiang dialects (Sun 1981a on the Taoping variety of Southern Qiang and Liu 1998 on the Mawo variety of Northern Qiang), and one (Huang Bufan 1991) is an overview of all of the Qiangic languages -- the branch of Tibeto-Burman that Qiang belongs to, which includes Pumi (Prinmi), rGyalrong, Muya, Ergong, Shixing, Namuzi (see Sun 1982, 1983, 1985)). The others mainly deal with specific grammatical features, such as the verbal orientation prefixes (Sun 1981b; Huang Bufan 1994), the case forms of the personal pronouns (Liu 1987), and the person marking (Liu 1999).
Randy J. LaPolla and Dory Poa began doing fieldwork on the Northern Qiang dialects of Ronghong and Qugu in 1994, and LaPolla (with Huang Chenglong) has completed one full reference grammar of the Ronghong dialect with annotated texts and glossary (LaPolla & Huang, 2003). This is the most complete description of a Qiang dialect written so far. A summary description of that dialect is to appear as LaPolla, in press, a. A volume of annotated texts in the Qugu dialect collected and analyzed by LaPolla & Poa was also published in 2003.
The project team also includes Huang Chenglong, a native Qiang linguist (originally trained by Sun Hongkai, Liu Guangkun, and Huang Bufan, now a research fellow at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences) who has published a number of articles on his native dialect, the Ronghong dialect (1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1997, 1998, 2000), including an overview of the language for the Phonetic Files series published by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. He has also done fieldwork on other Tibeto-Burman languages (see for example Sun & Huang 1998). His publications can be found here.
Jonathan Evans, who is an adviser to the project, did his dissertation on Qiang (Evans 2001), having done fieldwork on Southern Qiang dialects, and has published on several aspects of the language (Evans in press, a; in press, b). Aside from this, Gong Hwang-cheng of the Insititue of Linguistics, Academia Sinica, carried out fieldwork on several Southern Qiang dialects, but has not yet published his data. Studies on the culture and history of the Qiang people include Yan 1951; Graham 1958; Ran, Li & Zhou 1984; Zhou & Liu 1993; Xu 1993; Li, Lin & Wang 1994; and Meng, Gui & Lin 1994.
- Chang Kun. 1967. A Comparative Study of the Southern Ch'ang Dialects. Monumenta Serica 422-44.
- Evans, Jonathan. 2001. Introduction to Qiang Lexicon and Phonology: Synchrony and Diachrony (dissertation). Tokyo: Tokyo Institute of Foreign Studies.
- Evans, Jonathan. in press, a. Contact-induced Tonogenesis in Southern Qiang. Language and Linguistics (Academia Sinica, Taiwan).
- Evans, Jonathan. in press, b. Introduction to Southern Qiang verb morphology, Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 23.2.
- Graham, David Crockett. 1958. The Customs and Religion of the Ch'iang (Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection Vol. 135, No. 1). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
- Huang Bufan, Yu Xiaoping, and Huang Chenglong. 1992. Qiang Zu (The Qiang). Zhongguo ren de xingming (The Names of the Chinese People), 492-508. Beijing: Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Press.
- Huang Bufan. 1987. Qiangyu Yuyin Yanbian zhong Paichi Biyin de Qushi (The Tendency to Lose Nasals in the Development of Qiang Phonology). Minzu Yuwen 1987.5:19-26.
- Huang Bufan. 1991. Qiangyuzhi (The Qiang Branch). HanZangyu Gailun (A General Introduction to the Sino-Tibetan Languages), ed. by Ma Xueliang, Vol. I, 208-369. Beijing: Beijing University Press.
- Huang Bufan. 1994. Zang-Mianyu Dongci de Quxiang Fanchou (The Category of Directionality in Tibeto-Burman Verbs). Zang-Mianyu Xin Lun (Recent Contributions to Tibeto-Burman Studies), ed. by Ma Xueliang, Hu Tan, Dai Qingxia, Huang Bufan, and Fu Ailan, 133-151. Beijing: Central Institute of Nationalities Press.
- Huang Chenglong. 1992. Qiangyu Fufuyin de Yanbian (The Changes in the Consonant Clusters of Qiang). Qiangzu Yanjiu 1992.2:152-157.
- Huang Chenglong. 1993. Zhongguo Shaoshu Minzu Yuyan Dang'an: Qiangyu Ronghonghua (Phonetic Files on China's Minority Languages: The Ronghong Variety of Qiang). Beijing: Nationalities Institute, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.
- Huang Chenglong. 1994. Qiangyu Xingrongci Yanjiu (Study on the Adjectives of Qiang). Yuyan Yanjiu 1994.2:181-189.
- Huang Chenglong. 1995. Qiangyu Yinwei Xitong Fenxi Chuyi (An Initial Analysis of the Phonemic System of the Qiang Language. Minzu Yuwen 1995.1.
- Huang Chenglong. 1997. Qiangyu Dongci de Qianzhui (Verbal Prefixes in Qiang). Minzu Yuwen 1997.2:68-77.
- Huang Chenglong. 1998. Qiangyu Yinjie Ruohua Xianxiang (Syllable weakening in Qiang). Minzu Yuwen 1998.3:59-67.
- Huang Chenglong. 2000. Qiangyu de Cunzai Dongci (The Existential Verbs of Qiang). Minzu Yuwen 2000.3.
- Institute of Nationalities, Academia Sinica. 1962. Qiangyu Gaikuang (A brief description of the Qiang language). Zhongguo Yuwen 1962 (121):561-71.
- LaPolla, Randy J. ms. Grammar, Texts and Glossary of the Northern Qiang Dialect (400+ page comprehensive reference grammar plus annotated texts and glossary; now under review by Mouton de Gruyter).
- LaPolla, Randy J. in press, a. Qiang. The Sino-Tibetan languages, ed. by Graham Thurgood & Randy J. LaPolla. London: Curzon Press. (PDF file for downloading)
- Li Ming, Lin Zhongliang & Wang Kang. 1994. Qiangzu Wenxue Shi (The History of Qiang Literature). Chengdu: Sichuan Minzu Chubanshe.
- Lin Xiangrong. 1990. Sichuansheng Aba Zangzu Zizhizhou Shuangyu Diaocha Baogao (Report on the Investigation of Bilingualism in Aba Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture). Zhongguo Shaoshu Minzu Shuangyu Jiaoxue Yanjiu Lunji (Collected Studies on Bilingualism among China's Ethnic Minorities), ed. by the Association for the Study of Bilingualism among China's Ethnic Minorities. Beijing: Minzu Chubanshe.
- Liu Guangkun. 1981. Qiangyu zhong de Zangyu Jieci (Tibetan Loan-words in Qiang). Minzu Yuwen 1981.3:19-28.
- Liu Guangkun. 1984. Qiangyu Fuyin Yunwei Yanjiu (A Study on the Consonant Finals of Qiang). Minzu Yuwen 1984.4:39-47, 63.
- Liu Guangkun. 1986. Qiangyu zhong de Chang Fuyin (The Long Consonants in the Qiang Language). Minzu Yuwen 1986.4:35-36.
- Liu Guangkun. 1987. Lun Qiangyu Daici de 'Ge' (On the 'Cases' of Qiang Pronouns). Minzu Yuwen 1987.4:50-58.
- Liu Guangkun. 1997. Qiangyu Fufuyin Yanjiu (A Study on the Consonant Clusters of Qiang). Minzu Yuwen 1997.4:25-32.
- Liu Guangkun. 1998a. Lun Qiangyu Shengdiao de Chansheng he Fazhan (On the Origin and Development of Tones in Qiang). Minzu Yuwen 1988.2:1-8.
- Liu Guangkun. 1998b. Mawo Qiangyu Yanjiu (Studies on the Mawo dialect of Qiang). Chengdu: Sichuan Minzu Chubanshe.
- Liu Guangkun. 1999. Lun Qiangyu Dongci de Rencheng Fanchou (On the Person Category of Qiang Verbs). Minzu Yuwen 1999.1:30-36.
- Meng Yan, Gui Xiuwen & Lin Zhongliang. 1994. Qiangzu Minjian Gushi Xuan (A Selection of Folk Tales of the Qiang). Shanghai: Shanghai Wenyi Chubanshe.
- Overview of Aba Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture Editorial Board. 1985. Aba Zangzu Zizhi Zhou Gaikuang (Overview of Aba Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture). Chengdu, Sichuan: Sichuan Nationalities Press.
- Ran Guangrong, Li Shaoming, & Zhou Xiyin. 1984. Qiangzu Shi (The History of the Qiang Nationality). Chengdu: Sichuan Minzu Chubanshe.
- Sun Hongkai. 1981a. Qiangyu Jianzhi (A Brief Description of the Qiang Language). Beijing: Nationalities Press.
- Sun Hongkai. 1981b. Qiangyu Dongci de Quxiang Fanchou (The Category of Directionality in the Qiang Verb). Minzu Yuwen 1981.1:34-42.
- Sun Hongkai. 1982. Qiangyu Zhishu Wenti Chutan (A First Look at the Genetic Position of the Qiang Language). Minzu Yuwen Yanjiu Wenji, ed. by Minzu Yuwen Editorial Board, 189-224. Xining: Qinghai Minzu Chubanshe.
- Sun Hongkai. 1983. Chuanxi 'Minzu Zoulang' Diqu de Yuyan (The Languages of the 'Ethnic Corridor' Region Of Western Sichuan). Research on the Peoples of the Southwest, No. 1:429-454.
- Sun Hongkai. 1985. Liujiang Liuyu de Minzu Yuyan ji qi Xishu Fenlei (The Ethnic Languages of the Six Rivers Area and their Genetic Affiliations). Minzu Xuebao 3:99-274.
- Sun Hongkai. 1988. Lun Qiangzu Shuangyuzhi -- Jian Tan Hanyu dui Qiangyu de Yingxiang (The Bilingualism of the Qiang Nationality -- And the Influence of Chinese on the Qiang Language). Minzu Yuwen 1998.4:55-65.
- Sun, Hongkai. 1989. A Preliminary Investigation into the Relationship between Qiong Long and the Languages of the Qiang Branch of Tibeto-Burman. Linguistics of the Tibeto Burman Area 12.1: 92-109.
- Sun Hongkai and Huang Chenglong. 1998. Nuzu Rouruoyu Yanjiu (A Study of the Rouruo Language of the Nu Nationality). Shanghai: Shanghai Yuandong Chubanshe.
- Wen Yu. 1940. Lun Heishui Qiangyu zhong zhi Final Plosives (On the Final Plosives in the Hei-shui Dialect of the Ch'ang Language). Studia Serica 1:113-17.
- Wen Yu. 1941. Chuanxi Qiangyu zhi Chubu Fenxi (A Tentative Classification of the Ch'ang Languages in North-Western Szechuan). Studia Serica 2:38-71.
- Wen Yu. 1943a. Wenchuan Wasizu Qiangyu Yinxi (Phonology of the Chiang Language, Group I, Wa-gsod Dialect). Bulletin of Chinese Studies 3:293-308.
- Wen Yu. 1943b. Verbal Directive Prefixes in the Jyarong Language and their Ch'ang Equivalents. Studia Serica 3.1:11-20.
- Wen Yu. 1943c. Wenchuan Luopuzhai Qiangyu Yinxi (Phonology of the Ch'ang Language, Group II, Lopu Chai Dialect). Studia Serica 3.2:12-25.
- Wen Yu. 1945. Lifan Houerku Qiangyu Yinxi (Phonology of the Ch'ang Language, Group IV: Hou-erh-k'u Dialect). Studia Serica 4, suppl.
- Wen Yu. 1947. On the Origin of Certain Emphatic Consonants in Ch'ang Dialects. Studia Serica 6:209-15.
- Wen Yu. 1950. An Abridged Ch'ang Vocabulary (Chiu Tzu Ying Dialect). Studia Serica 9.2:17-54.
- Wen Yu. 1951. Wenzhou Qiangyu Cihui Jianbian (Luopuzhai Fangyan) [Concise Wenzhou Qiang Lexicon (Luopu Zhai Dialect)]. Zhongguo Wenhua Yanjiu Huikan 10.
- Xu Ping. 1993. Qiang Cun Shehui -- Yi ge Gulao Minzu de Wenhua he Bianqian (Qiang Village Society --The Culture and Migrations of an Ancient Ethnic Group). Beijing: Zhongguo Shehui Kexue Chubanshe.
- Zhou Xiyin & Liu Zhirong. 1993. Qiang Zu (The Qiang Nationality). Beijing: Minzu Chubanshe.