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How to Make a Crossbow
tɑ̄nɑ̄ kə̄ɹwɑ̄ zū sɑ̄

Told by Li Yaohua (nəwɑ̄ŋzɑ̀r bɹɑ̄ʑì)


tɑ̄nɑ̄ zū sɑ̄,
crossbow make *NOM*
! 'The making of the crossbow,'


tə̌lī, tɑ̄nɑ̄ ə̌kplə̄ŋ, tǐkrɔ̄l,
bow(part.of.crossbow) crossbow body.of.bow trigger
! 'is composed of (making) the bow, the body, the trigger,'


tǐdə̄n, tə̌lət tɛ̌ zū gɛ̄.
string.holder string *INST* make *NOM*+be
! 'the string, and the string holder.'


tə̌lī nɯ̄ sɑ̄ɕɯ̄ŋ rət-rət,
bow *TOP* tree.used.to.make.bow cut-*REDUP*
! 'Having cut down the tree(wood) especially used to make crossbows,'


nə̀ŋdə̌gə̀m tɕìtɕɯ̀ŋ tɕɛ̄ ə̌ktsɛɁ cɑ̀ ʑɔɁ-ʑɔɁ.
well(adv.) small only strip become shave-*REDUP*
! 'use a knife to cut the tree trunk into a smaller strip.'


nə̀ŋdə̌gə̀m ɕə̄n gɯ̄ ɕɯk-kɔɁ lɔ̄-lɔ̌,
well(adv.) straight *NOM* tree-*CL*(straight.piece) find/look.for-*REDUP*
! 'Find a straight piece of wood,'


tə̌lī dūŋ dɔ̌ ɕɯk-tshɛɁ tɛ̌ sɑ̄n-sɑ̄n,
bow middle *LOC* tree-*CL*(flat.piece) *INST* support.the.bottom-*REDUP*
! 'using a flat piece of wood to support the bottom of the middle part of the bow,'


kɔ̄ lɑ̄i jɑ̀ lɑ̄i ə̌jɑ̀ ɕɯk-kɔɁ lɛ̌ ə̌xrək.
that side that side that tree-*CL*(straight.piece) *DAT* fasten+1pl
! 'we fasten the straight piece of wood to the two sides of the bow.'


ə̌jɑ̀ ɛ̄, ləkpɑ̄ lɛ̌ ɔ̄:.
that be steam *DAT* cook+1pl
! 'After that, we use steam to cook it.'


ɔ: tɔ̄n mə̌nə̄ŋ, xrɯ̌məì dɔ̄ lɑ̄:m.
cook finish follow fireplace.rack *LOC* dry(vt.)+1pl
! 'After we have finished cooking it, we dry it on the rack over the cooking stove.'


tɑ̄nɑ̄ ə̌kplə̄ŋ nɯ̄, lɯ̀mɕɯ̄ ʑɔk-ʑɔk zū:.
crossbow body *TOP* firewood cut.into.small.strips+1pl-*REDUP* make+1pl
! '(For) the body of the crossbow, cut the firewood into small strips.'


tɑ̄nɑ̄ ə̌kplə̄ŋ zū tɔ̄n mə̌nə̄ŋ,
crossbow body make finish follow
! 'After finishing the body part of the crossbow,'


cɛ̄ lɑ̄i ɔ̄ŋ tə̌lī wɑ̄ rə̌mū-mū
one side *LOC* bow *ADV* draw-*REDUP*
! 'On one side, having drawn the shape of a bow,'


dəkɕī tɛ̌ puk.
small.knife *INST* bore.small.hole+1pl
! 'we use a small knife to bore a small hole.'


puɁ tɔ̄n mə̌nə̄ŋ, nɑ̄tsɛ̄-nɑ̄tsɛ̄ tə̌lī zɑ̄:ŋ.
bore.small.hole finish follow slowly-*REDUP* bow put.in+1pl
! 'After having bored a small hole, we slowly fit the bow into the hole.'


ə̌jɑ̀ ɛ̄, ɕɑ̄ɹɯ̄ tɛ̌ tǐdə̄n ɲī tǐkrɔ̄l zū.
that be bone *INST* string.holder and trigger make
! 'Then use bone to make the string holder and trigger.'


tə̌lət nɯ̄ ì tɛ̌ nə̀ŋdə̌gə̀m ŋɑ̄ŋ (tɛ̌) ɕək-ɕək (nɯ̌) ɟɯk.
bow.string *TOP* hemp *INST* well(adv.) water *INST* soak-*REDUP*+1pl *LNK* rub+1pl
! 'To make the bow string, we soak hemp well in water and then rub it (roll it into string).'


ɟɯɁ tɔ̄n mə̌nə̄ŋ ə̌jɑ̀ ɛ̄, ə̌jɑ̀ tə̌lət ə̌lì sə̌ɹɑ̀ tɛ̌
rub finish follow that be that bow.string heavy thing *INST*
! 'After rubbing it, we use something heavy'


kə̌tɑ̀l-tɑ̀l nə̀mgɑ̄ŋ dɔ̌ lɑ̄:m.
hang-*REDUP* sunshine *LOC* dry(vt.)+1pl
! 'to hang it to dry in the sun.'


kə̄m mə̌nə̄ŋ, tə̌lī lɛ̌ pə̌dɑ̄:m-dɑ̄:m,
dry follow bow *DAT* compare+1pl-*REDUP*
! 'When it is dry, we make it the same (length) as the bow,'


kɔ̄ lɑ̄i jɑ̀ lɑ̄i tə̌-tsək.
that side that side(=both sides) *CAUS*-be.around+1pl
! '(then) make a noose at each end.'


tə̌lət zū tɔ̄n mə̌nə̄ŋ, tə̌lī lɛ̄ gwɛ̄:ɹ.
string make finish follow bow *DAT* fasten+1pl
! 'When the string is done, we fasten it to the bow.'


tə̌lət ə̌dūŋ-dūŋ dɔ̌ tɕìtɕhɯ̀ŋ tsə̌ɹī tɛ̌ tə̌-tsək.
string middle-*REDUP* *LOC* small thread *INST* *CAUS*-be.around+1pl
! 'In the (exact) middle of the string, we wrap another little string around it to protect it.'


tɑ̄nɑ̄ zū tɔ̄n mə̌nə̄ŋ, nə̀ŋdə̌gèm ə̌tù ɑ̄ ɟɑ̀:ŋ.
crossbow make finish follow well(adv.) accurate *Q* look(try)+1pl
! 'When the crossbow is done, we test it to see if it is accurate.'


də̌mɑ̄ nɯ̌ tə̀i tɕīzə̀ŋ gɯ̌ kɑ̄m rət-rət,
arrow *TOP* very(big) hard *NOM* bamboo cut.down+1pl-*REDUP*
! 'For the arrow, having cut down a very hard bamboo,'


ə̌ŋŋɑ̄i-ə̌ŋŋɑī kɑp-kɑɁ zū:
half-*REDUP* bamboo-*CL*(strip) make+1pl
! 'we make strips by cutting the bamboo in half.'


ə̌jɑ̀ ɛ̄, xrɯ̌məì dɔ̌ də̌ɟɛk,
that be rack.over.the.cooking.stove *LOC* smoke+1pl
! 'After that, we smoke it on the fireplace rack.'


mə̌nɯ̄-nɯ̄ cɑ̀ mə̌nə̄ŋ,
long.period.of.time-*REDUP* pass(become) follow
! 'After a long time,'


kɑp-kɑɁ tɕìtɕɯ̄ŋ- tɕìtɕɯ̄ŋ ŋɑ̄:i-ŋɑ̄:i,
bamboo-*CL*(strip) small-*REDUP* cut.into.small.pieces+1pl-*REDUP*
! 'we cut the bamboo strips into smaller strips,'


dəkɕī tɛ̌ kut. kut tɔ̄n mə̌nə̄ŋ,
small.knife *INST* shave shave finish follow
! 'then shave them with a small knife. After shaving them,'


nə̀ŋdə̌gə̀m sə̌-tū:, ə̌jɑ̀ ɛ̄, ə̌kɕɯ̄kɑ̄m tɛ̌,
well(adv.) *CAUS*-straight+1pl that be fresh.bamboo *INST*
! 'we make them straight, and then use fresh bamboo to make something like wings,'


kɑ̄cɛ̄ɹ zū-zū sə̌pək.
wing make-*REDUP* attach+1pl
! '(and) attach the wings to the arrow.'