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Why Dogs Have Long Tongues and Can’t Talk

Told by Li Yaohua (nəwɑ̄ŋzɑ̀r bɹɑ̄ʑì)


tɕɑ̄ pɑ̄ɹ tɕɑ̄ pɑ̄ɹ nɯ̄, də̌gī kɑ̄ gɯɁ sɔ̄ tɕìwɑ̌.
long.ago time long.ago time *TOP* dog words say know.how *HS*
! 'It is said long ago dogs knew how to talk.'


bə̌nībə̌nɑ̄ (ə̌dūŋ) dɔ̌, kɑ̄ gɯɁ sɔ̄ gɯ̄ də̌gī ɛ̄ tɕìwɑ̀.
livestock middle *LOC* words say know.how *NOM* dog be *HS*
! 'It is said among the livestock the one that knew how to talk was the dog.'


tɕɑ̄ pɑ̌ɹ tɕɑ̄ pɑ̌ɹ nɯ̄ də̌gī ɲī wɑɁ ə̌tsə̀ŋ tɛ̌ sū: gɯ̄ ɛ̄ tɕìwɑ̌.
long.ago time long.ago time *TOP* dog and pig person *AGT* raise *NOM* be *HS*
! 'It is said long ago (a) dog and (a) pig were raised by (a) person'


ə̌k-kɑ̀ŋ tɛ̌ də̌gī, wɑɁ lɛ̌ (nɯ̌) tə̄ŋ ɕɯ̌ gɯɁ də̄m mɑ̀l tɕìwɑ̌,
3-master *AGT* dog pig *DAT* *TOP* what also say anything *NEG*+have *HS*
! 'The master did not say anything to the dog or the pig (i.e., he was satisfied with their work, and)'


ə̌xɹɯī sə̌ɹɑ̄ŋ nə̀ŋdə̌gə̀m ə̌ŋzɑ̄ zī tɕìwɑ̌.
evening morning well food give *HS*
! 'gave them food (fed them well) morning and night.'


ə̌k-kɑ̀ŋ tɛ̌ nə̀mɟɑ̄ŋ-nə̀mɟɑ̄ŋ də̌gī ɲī wɑɁ ə̌mɹɑ̄ wɑ̀ lɛ̌ sə̌lɑ̀:ŋ tɕìwɑ̌.
3-master *AGT* daytime-*REDUP* dog and pig field do *PURP* send.out *HS*
! 'The master would send the dog and thepig out to work the field every day.'


ə̌mɹɑ̄ wɑ̀ lɛ̄ sə̌lɑ̀ŋ bɛ̄, wɑɁ cɛ̄ ɲī mɑ̄-rə̌nɑ̄ (wɑ̄) (wɑ̀) tɕìwɑ̌.
field do *DAT* send.out *LNK* pig one day one day *NEG*-rest *ADV* do *HS*
! 'When they were sent out to work the field, the pig would work all day without resting.'


də̌gī nɯ̄ wɑɁ ə̌mɹɑ̄ wɑ̀ pɑ̄ɹ, ə̌mɹɑ̄ tɕɛ̄m dɔ̌ ɟip tɕìwɑ̌.
dog *TOP* pig field do time field edge *LOC* sleep *HS*
! 'When the pig was working the field, the dog would sleep by the edge of the field.'


ə̌xɹɯī lɔɁ tsɔt dū mə̌nə̄ŋ nɯ̄, də̌gī tɛ̌ wɑɁ tɛ̌ ɔ̀ ə̌mɹɑ̄ dɔ̌ də̌gī mɑ̄l tɕɛ̄ ə̌blə̀n gɯ̄ ə̌ʑət tɕìwɑ̌.
night return time arrive follow *TOP* dog *AGT* pig *AGT* do field *LOC* dog footprint only/just make.mark *NOM* step.on *HS*
! 'At night, when it was time to return, the dog would leave his footprints in the field where the pig had worked.'


wɑɁ ə̌mɹɑ̄ wɑ̀ tɔ̄:n mə̌nə̄ŋ nɯ̄, ɟɔ̄ŋ mə̌nə̄ŋ rə̌nɑ̀ pɑ̄ɹ,
pig field do finish follow *TOP* tired follow rest time
! 'When the pig finished working the field and was tired and resting,'


də̌gī ūzù cɯ̀m lɛ̌ lɔɁ tɕìwɑ̌, ə̌xɹɯī dū mə̌nə̄ŋ nɯ̄,
dog first house *DAT* return *HS* night arrive follow *TOP*
! 'the dog would first go home and at night'


də̌gī (tɛ̌) ə̌k-kɑ̀ŋ lɛ̌ klɯp tɕìwɑ̌,
dog *AGT* 3-master *DAT* deceive *HS*
! 'would deceive the master (saying):'


“ə̌-kɑ̀ŋ! lɑ̄mbrɔɁ wɑɁ, ɑ̀ŋ nɯ̄ cɛ̄ ɲī cɛ̄ ɲī ə̌mɹɑ̄ tɕɛ̄m dɔ̌ ɟip, ə̌gɔ̀ nɯ̄ ə̌mɹɑ̄ wə̄ŋ dɛ̀n mə̌-dɛ̀n ɑ̀ŋ tɛ̌ mə̌-sɔ̄:.”
1-master friend pig 3sg *TOP* one day one day field edge *LOC* sleep 1sg *TOP* field do+1sg tired *NEG*-tired 3sg *AGT* *NEG*-know
! '“Master! Friend Pig, he sleeps all day at the edge of the field, not knowing whether or not I am tired working in the field.” (i.e.: “not caring whether I am tired or not from doing all the work”)'


də̌gī ɛ̄-wɑ̄ ə̌k-kɑ̀ŋ lɛ̌ klɯp tɕìwɑ̌.
dog *DEM*-*ADV* 3-master *DAT* deceive *HS*
! 'The dog deceived his master in this way.'


ə̌k-kɑ̀ŋ nə̀ŋdə̌gə̀m nit-ɕɯ̌ tɕìwɑ̌,
3-master well think-*R/M* *HS*
! 'The master thought about this for a while/well,'


“ə̌gɔ̀ ə̌mɹɑ̄ lɛ̌ ɕɯ̌ mə̌-ɟɯ̄ŋ,
1sg field *DAT* also *NEG*-go+1sg
! '(and said to himself,) “I haven’t gone to the field,'


cɛ̄ ɟɔɁ gɯɁ (gɯ̌) kɑ̄ tɛ̌ ə̌nī zū mɑɁ-zū gɯ̄ təp mɑ̀l,
one *CL*(person) say *NOM* word *INST* who right *NEG*-right say ability *NEG*+have
! '(so) I can’t say on the basis of one person’s word who is right and who is wrong,'


dɛ̄lɑ̄ ə̌gɔ̀ ə̌mɹɑ̄ lɛ̌ ɟə̄ŋ lɛ̄ ɟɯ̄ŋ jɯ̀ŋ.”
later 1sg field *DAT* see *PURP* go+1sg want+1sg
! 'later I want to go to the field myself to see.”'


ɛ̄-bɛ̄ nɯ̄ də̌gī ɛ̄-wɑ̄ gɯɁ bɛ̄ ɕɯ̌, ə̌k-kɑ̀ŋ tɛ̌
*DEM*-*LNK* *TOP* dog *DEM*-*ADV* say *LNK* also 3-master *AGT*
! 'This way, when the dog talks like this, the master'


kɑ̄pə̄ ɟɔɁ nɛɁ təì wɑ̄ mə̌-ɟɑ̀:ŋ tɕìwɑ̌.
which *CL*(person) eye big *ADV* *NEG*-see *HS*
! 'won’t be biased towards either of them.'


ə̌jɑ̀ tɯ̄m nɯ̄, ə̌k-kɑ̀ŋ tshɑɁ wɑ̄ nɑ̄nī wɑ̀ lɛ̌ ɟì tɕìwɑ̌.
that after *TOP* 3-master secretly *ADV* peep do *PURP* go *HS*
! 'After that, the master went to secretly spy on them.'


kɑ̄pɛ̄ ɟɔɁ lɛ̌ ɕɯ̄ sə̌ɹɑ̄ŋ nə̀ŋdə̌gə̀m ə̌ŋzɑ̄ zī ʑīn
which *CL*(person) *DAT* also morning well food give *LNK*
! 'In the morning after he fed each of them well and'


ə̌mɹɑ̄ wɑ̀ lɛ̌ sə̌lɑ̀ŋ-lɑ̀ŋ,
field do *DAT* send.out-*REDUP*
! 'sent them out to the fields to work,'


pɑ̄lī tɯ̄m pɛ̄, sɛ̄m lɛ̄ ɟì tɕìwɑ̌.
behind after *ABL* peep *PURP* go *HS*
! 'He went behind them to spy on them.'


ə̌k-kɑ̀ŋ ə̌mɹɑ̄ lɛ̌ ɟì tɕìwɑ̌.
3-master field *DAT* go *HS*
! 'The master went to the field.'


tə̌sɑ̄ cɛ̄ ɲī nɯ̌,
begin one day *TOP*
! 'The first day,'


wɑɁ nɯ̌ nə̌m-ə̌xrɯī xrɛɁ nitɕhɔɁ gūl-(lɛ̄)-gūl ə̌mɹɑ̄ wɑ̀ wɑ̌, wɑɁ nɯ̄ lɛ̄ɕɯ̀ mə̌-wɑ̀ mɯ̄ wɑ̌.
pig *TOP* heaven-evening *EXT* tail move-*RP*-*REDUP* field do *HS* pig *TOP* slack.off *NEG*-do *EMP* *HS*
! 'the pig worked from morning until night in the field, wagging his tail, and didn’t slack off.'


ɛ̄-bɛ̄, də̌gī nɯ̄ ə̌mɹɑ̄ dɔ̌ mɑ̄-də̌gɹɑ̀ wɑ̀.
*DEM*-*LNK* dog *TOP* field *LOC* *NEG*-see *HS*
! '(The master) did not see the dog in the field.'


ɛ̄-wɑ̄ ɛ̄-bɛ̄ ɕɯ̌ kɑ̄ mɑ̄-gɯɁ-gɯɁ.
*DEM*-*ADV* *DEM*-*LNK* also word *NEG*-say-*REDUP*
! 'He didn’t say anything about this.'


də̌gī ɲī wɑɁ mə̌-lɔɁ tsɑ̀r,
dog and pig *NEG*-arrive time
! 'Before the dog and pig arrived,'


ə̌bɹɑ̀-bɹɑ̀ cɯ̀m lɛ̌ lɔɁ-lɔɁ nɯ̌,
quickly-*REDUP* house *DAT* return-*REDUP* *TOP*
! 'he quickly returned to the house,'


ə̌ŋzɑ̄ zū:-zū:, də̌gī ɲī wɑɁ lɛ̌ cɛ̄tɕī wɑ̄ zī tɕìwɑ̌
food make-*REDUP* dog and pig *DAT* the.same *ADV* give *HS*
! 'made the food and gave it to the dog and pig equally (the same to each).'


ə̌xrɯī dū mə̌nə̄ŋ, də̌gī ə̌k-kɑ̀ŋ lɛ̄ ɔ̄lɔɁ ūzù wɑ̄ gɯɁ tɕìwɑ̌,
evening arrive follow dog 3-master *DAT* again before *ADV* say *HS*
! 'In the evening the dog, as before, said to the master,'


“nɑ̀ wɑɁ lɛ̄ ə̌ŋzɑ̄ tɔ̄ŋmɛɁ dɔ̌ ɲi-zī:, lɛ̄kɑ̄ ɕɯ̌ mə̌-wɑ̀.
2sg pig DAY food wastefully *LOC* *NF*-give work also *NEG*-go
! '“You are giving the pig food for nothing, as he doesn’t work.'


nɑ̀ nit nə̌-gə̀m, ɑ̀ŋ tɛ̌ mə̌-sɔ̄.”
2sg mind *NF*-good 3sg *AGT* *NEG*-know
! 'You have a good heart but he doesn’t know it (doesn’t appreciate it).”'


ɛ̄-wɑ̄ ɛ̄-bɛ̄ ɕɯ̌ ə̌k-kɑ̀ŋ tə̄ŋ ɕɯ̌ mə̄-gɯɁ wɑ̌,
*DEM*-*ADV* *DEM*-*LNK* also 3-master what also *NEG*-say *HS*
! 'The master still didn’t say anything about this,'


cɛ̄ kɔ̄ɹ dɔ̌ tɕɛ̄ ɟɑ̀:ŋ mɑ̄-pə̌sɑ̄: wɑ̀.
one time *LOC* only look *NEG*-know(clearly) *HS*
! 'he only looked one time, (so) he wasn’t sure.'


ə̌jɑ̀ tɯ̄m ə̌k-kɔ̄ɹ-kɔ̄ɹ sɛ̄m bɛ̄,
that after *PREF*-time-*REDUP* peep *LNK*
! 'After spying on them several times,'


də̌gī ə̌lɔ̄ʑɛ̄ gɛ̄ mɯ̄ wɑ̌.
dog lie *NOM*+be *EMP* *HS*
! '(he found) it was the dog who was lying.'


tɑ̄mɑ̄ lɛ̄kɑ̄ wɑ̀ gɯ̄ wɑɁ tɕɛ̄ɛ̄ mɯ̄ wɑ̌.
really work do *NOM* pig only be *EMP* *HS*
! 'It was only the pig who was really working.'


də̌gī nə̀mɟɑ̀ŋ lɛ̄ɕɯ̀ wɑ̀,
dog daytime slack.off do
! 'In the daytime the dog slacked off,'


ə̌xrɯī-ə̌xrɯī ūzù lɔɁ ʑīn, ə̌k-kɑ̀ŋ lɛ̄ klɯp wɑ̌
night-*REDUP* before return *LNK* 3-master *DAT* deceive *HS*
! 'and every night returned first and lied to the master.'


wɑɁ nɯ̄ kɑ̄ gɯɁ mə̌-sɔ̄,
pig *TOP* word say *NEG*-know
! 'The pig didn’t know how to talk,'


ɛ̄-bɛ̄ də̌gī nɯ̄ kɑ̄ gɯɁ sɔ̄.
*DEM*-*LNK* dog *TOP* word say know
! 'but the dog knew how to talk.'


ə̌jɑ̀ mə̌nə̄ŋ nɯ̄, ə̌k-kɑ̀ŋ ə̀ŋɲī lɛ̌ cɛ̄tɕì ə̌ŋzɑ̄ zī tɕìwɑ̌.
that follow *TOP* 3-master 3dual *DAT* the.same food give *HS*
! 'This way, the master first gave them the same food.'


dɛ̄lɑ̄ cɑ̀ mə̌nə̄ŋ nɯ̄, ə̌k-kɑ̀ŋ də̌gī lɛ̌ ɛ̄-wɑ̄ gɯɁ wɑ̌,
later become follow *TOP* 3-master dog *DAT* *DEM*-*ADV* say *HS*
! 'Later, the master said to the dog:'


“tə̄n nɑ̀ tə̄ŋ cɯ̌ mɛ̄-gɯɁ ə̀l,
now 2sg what also *NEG*+*NF*-say *IMP*
! '“Now don’t you say anything,'


nə̌-kɑ̀ŋ kɑ̄ gɯɁ pə̌wə̄ŋ,
2-master word say will+1sg
! 'your master (I) want to talk.'


tə̄n nɑ̀ pɑ̄ ɕɯ̄ ɲɑɁ-ə̌gɹɑ̀:, dɛ̀n cɯ̄ ɲi-dɛ̀n,
now 2sg belly also *NF*-full(of.food) tired also *NF*-tired
! 'Now your stomach is full and you are tired,'


ɟɑ̀ dɔ̌ pɑ̄-rə̌nɑ̀ ə̀m, nīgɔ̀ŋ pə̌-gɑ:ì,
this *LOC* *IMP*-rest *POL* mouth *IMP*-open
! 'come here and rest, and open your mouth.'


nà pə̌lɑì ɟə̀ŋ jɯ̌ŋ”, ɛ̄-wɑ̄ gɹɯ̄:ŋ mə̌nə̄ŋ,
2sg tongue see want+1sg *DEM*-*ADV* say follow
! 'I want to see your tongue.” He said like this.'


də̌gī nīgɔ̀ŋ gɑ:ì-gɑì (ʑīn) pə̌lɑì ʑū: pɑ̄ɹ,
dog mouth open-open *LNK* tongue stick.out time
! 'When the dog opened his mouth and stuck out his tongue,'


ə̌k-kɑ̀ŋ tɛ̌ pə̌lɑì ɕɑ̀:l-ɕɑ̀:l,
3-master *AGT* tongue pull-*REDUP*
! 'The master pulled it,'


də̌gī lɛ̌ ɛ̄-wɑ̄ gɹɯ̄:ŋ wɑ̌, “ɲi-ɟɑ̀:ŋ bɛ̌,
dog *DAT* like.this say *HS* *NF*-see *LNK*
! 'He said to the dog like this: “If you look at it,'


nɑ̀ ə̌lɔ̄ʑɛ̄ sɑ̄-sɑ̄ wɑ̄ mə̌-cɑ̀ ɟɯ̀m,
2sg lie know.how-*REDUP* *COMP* *NEG*-become seem
! 'It seems like you don’t know how to lie,'


nɑ̀ ɟɑ̀ pə̌lɑì tɛ̌ ɲi-klɯp,
2sg this tongue *INST* *NF*-deceive
! 'you use this tongue to lie (to me),'


ɟɑ̀ pə̌lɑì nɑ̀ lɛ̌ tə̄ŋ ɕɯ̌ ʑīgū mɑ̀l
this tongue 2sg *DAT* what also use *NEG*+have
! 'this tongue is of no use to you.'


ɟɑ̀ pə̌lɑì mɑ̀l bɛ̄,
this tongue *NEG*+have *LNK*
! 'If you didn’t have this tongue,'


nɑ̀ nə̀ŋdə̌gə̀m lɛ̄kɑ̄ ɲi-wɑ̀ tɯ̄ ɛ̄.
2sg well work *NF*-do perhaps be
! 'ou might work well.”'


ə̌jɑ̀ tɯ̄m nɯ̄, də̌gī pə̌lɑì mɹə̀ŋ tɕìwɑ̌,
that after *TOP* dog tongue long *HS*
! 'After that, the dog’s tongue was long,'


kɑ̄ gɯɁ təp mɑ̀l tɕìwɑ̌.
word say ability *NEG*+have *HS*
! 'and he did not have the ability to speak.'